D.C. 酒吧 Voluntary St和ards of Civility in Professional Conduct

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Civility in 专业 conduct is the responsibility of every lawyer. While lawyers have an obligation to represent clients zealously, we must also be mindful of our obligations to the administration of justice. Incivility to opposing counsel, 不利的方, 法官, 法院工作人员, 和 other participants in the legal process demeans the legal profession, undermines the administration of justice, 并削弱了对法律程序和司法系统结果的尊重.

我们的司法制度是一个寻求真相的过程,旨在理性地解决人类和社会问题, 和平, 和有效的方式和设计被认为是产生公平和公正的结果. 我们必须小心谨慎,避免采取损害制度或破坏公众对制度信心的行动或言论.

The organized bar 和 the judiciary, in partnership with each other, 有责任在法律实践和司法中提倡文明. 澳门赌场官网或法官的不文明行为阻碍了理性解决纠纷的根本目标, 和平 和 非常高效。ly. Such conduct may delay or deny justice 和 diminish the respect for law, which is a cornerstone of our society 和 our profession.

文明和专业是一个致力于公共服务的博学专业的标志. These st和ards are designed to encourage us, 作为澳门赌场官网和法官, to meet our obligations of civility 和 专业ism, 给彼此, 对诉讼当事人, 和 to the system of justice. The goal is to ensure that lawyers 和 法官 will conduct themselves at all times, in both litigated 和 nonlitigated matters, with personal courtesy 和 专业ism in the fullest sense of those terms.

While these st和ards are voluntary 和 are not intended by the D.C. 澳门赌场官网公会理事会 to be used as a basis for litigation or sanctions, we expect that lawyers 和 法官 in the District of Columbia will make a commitment to adhere to these st和ards in all aspects of their dealings with one another 和 with other participants in the legal process.

最后, we believe these st和ards should be incorporated as an integral component of the teaching of 专业ism to law students 和 practicing lawyers alike. We therefore believe that it is important for law schools in our community to incorporate these st和ards in their curricula 和 for the District of Columbia 酒吧, the voluntary bar associations, 澳门赌场官网事务所, 政府机构, 和 other legal institutions in our community to teach 和 promote these st和ards as part of their continuing legal education programs.

由D通过.C. 澳门赌场官网公会理事会
June 18, 1996; Amended March 11, 1997




  1. In carrying out our 专业 responsibilities, we will treat all participants in the legal process, including counsel 和 their staff, 方, 目击者, 法官, 法庭人员, 在民事诉讼中, 专业, 礼貌的举止, at all times 和 in all communications, 无论是口头还是书面. We will refrain from acting upon or manifesting racial, 性别, or other bias or prejudice toward any participant in the legal process. We will treat all participants in the legal process with respect.
  2. Except within the bounds of 公平 argument in pleadings or in formal proceedings, we will not reflect in our conduct, 的态度, or demeanor our clients' ill feelings, 如果有任何, toward other participants in the legal process.
  3. 我们不会, even if called upon by a client to do so, engage in offensive conduct directed toward other participants in the legal process nor will we abuse other such participants in the legal process. Except within the bounds of 公平 argument in pleadings or in formal proceedings, we will abstain from 诋毁 personal remarks or acrimony toward such participants 和 treat adverse 目击者 和 方 with 公平 consideration. 我们将鼓励我们的客户以文明和尊重的态度对待法律程序中的所有参与者.
  4. 我们不会 encourage or authorize any person under our control to engage in conduct that would be inappropriate under these st和ards if we were to engage in such conduct.
  5. 我们不会 bring the profession into disrepute by making unfounded accusations of impropriety or making ad hominem attacks on counsel, 和, 无正当理由, we will not attribute bad motives or improper conduct to other counsel.
  6. While we owe our highest loyalty to our clients, 我们将在司法系统的框架内履行这一义务,并在其中应用我们所学到的知识, 技能, 和 industry in accordance with 专业 norms. 在这种情况下, we will strive for orderly, 非常高效。, 道德, 公平, 和 just disposition of litigation as well as disputed matters that are not, 或者还没有, the subject of litigation, 对于高效的, 道德, 和 公平 negotiation 和 consummation of business transactions.
  7. The foregoing 一般原则 apply to all aspects of legal proceedings, both in the presence 和 outside the presence of a court or tribunal.


  1. We will endeavor to schedule dates for trials, 听证会, 口供, 会议, 谈判, 会议, 假期, 研讨会, 以及其他功能,以避免在法律程序中为其他参与者造成日历冲突, provided our clients' interests will not be adversely affected.
  2. 我们不会ify other counsel 和, 如果合适的话, the court or other persons, at the earliest possible time when 听证会, 口供, 会议, 或会议 need to be canceled or postponed. Early notice avoids unnecessary travel 和 expense 和 may enable the court 和 the other participants in the legal process to use the previously reserved time for other matters.
  3. We will agree to reasonable requests for extensions of time 和 for waiver of procedural formalities provided our clients' interests will not be adversely affected.
  4. 我们不会 request an extension of time for the purpose of 不合理的延迟.

Principles Particularly Applicable to Litigation


  1. 我们将与对方澳门赌场官网就诉讼过程中出现的程序问题进行协商, such as requests for extensions of time, 发现问题, 审判前的事项, 和 the scheduling of 会议, 口供, 听证会, 和审判. 我们将寻求通过协议解决不需要法院命令的程序性问题. 对于那些有兴趣的人, 在将此事提交法庭之前,我们将寻求与对方澳门赌场官网达成协议.
  2. We accept primary responsibility, after consultation with the client, for making decisions about procedural agreements. We will explain to our clients that cooperation between counsel in such matters is the 专业 norm 和 may be in the client's interest. We will explain the nature of the matter at issue in any such proposed agreements 和 explain how such agreements do not compromise the client's interests.


  1. 我们不会 use any form of discovery or discovery scheduling for harassment, 不合理的延迟, to increase litigation expenses, or any other improper purpose.
  2. We will make good faith efforts to resolve by agreement any disputes with respect to matters contained in pleadings 和 discovery requests 和 objections.
  3. 我们不会在证词中做出任何法官在场时不合适的行为. 相应的, 我们不会在取证过程中妨碍询问或反对取证问题, unless permitted by the applicable rules to preserve an objection or privilege 和 we will ask only those questions we reasonably believe are appropriate in discovery under the applicable rules.
  4. We will carefully craft document production requests so they are limited to those documents we reasonably believe are appropriate under the applicable rules. 我们不会设计生产要求以给一方带来不适当的负担或费用.
  5. We will respond to document requests reasonably. 我们不会 interpret the request in an artificially restrictive manner to avoid disclosure of relevant 和 non-privileged documents. 我们不会以隐藏或模糊特定文件存在的方式生成文件.
  6. We will carefully craft interrogatories so they are limited to those matters we reasonably believe are appropriate under the applicable rules, 我们不会为了给一方带来不必要的负担或费用而设计它们.
  7. We will respond to interrogatories reasonably. 我们不会 interpret interrogatories in an artificially restrictive manner to avoid disclosure of relevant 和 non-privileged information.
  8. We will base our discovery objections on a good faith belief in their merit. 我们不会仅仅为了拒绝或延迟披露适当可发现的信息而反对.
  9. 在发现, we will not engage in acrimonious conversations or exchanges with opposing counsel, 方, 或目击者. 我们将建议我们的客户按照这些规定行事. 我们不会从事有损法律程序尊严或无礼的行为.


  1. 我们不会 seek court sanctions or disqualification of counsel unless reasonably justified by the circumstances after conducting a reasonable investigation, which includes attempting to confer with opposing counsel.

Lawyers' Duties to the Court

  1. We recognize that the public's perception of our system of justice is influenced by the relationship between lawyers 和 法官, 和 that 法官 perform a symbolic role. 同时, lawyers have the right 和, 有时, the duty to be critical of 法官 和 their rulings. Thus, in all communications with the court, we will speak 和 write civilly. In expressing criticism of the court, 我们应尽量使用不尊重法院和司法制度的语言.
  2. 我们不会从事有损司法程序尊严和礼仪的行为, brings disorder or disruption to the courtroom, or undermines the image of the legal profession.
  3. 我们将建议当事人和证人在法庭上礼貌有礼, educate them about proper courtroom 礼仪, 和, to the best of our ability, prevent them from creating disorder or disruption in the courtroom.
  4. 我们不会故意歪曲,错误描述,错误引用,或混淆事实或权威.
  5. 我们不会 degrade the intelligence, 道德, 道德, 完整性, or personal behavior of others, unless such matters are legitimately at issue in the proceeding.
  6. We will act 和 speak civilly 和 respectfully to the judge's staff, 法庭工作人员, 和 other 法院工作人员 with an awareness that they, 太, are an integral part of the judicial system. 我们还将建议客户和证人在法律程序中礼貌和尊重地对待这些参与者.
  7. We recognize that judicial resources are scarce, that court dockets are crowded, 如果案件被拖延和(或)争端得不到解决,司法公正就会受到损害. 因此, we will be considerate of the time constraints 和 pressures on the court 和 court staff inherent in their efforts to administer justice.
  8. 我们认识到,拖延和忽视是对法院和司法系统的不尊重. 因此, we will be punctual 和 prepared for all court appearances so that all 听证会, 会议, 和审判s may commence on time 和 proceed 非常高效。ly. 我们还将教育客户和证人准时和准备的必要性. If delayed, we will promptly notify the court 和 counsel, if at all possible.
  9. Before dates for 听证会 or trials are set, or, 如果这是不可行的, immediately after such a date has been set, we will attempt to verify the availability of necessary participants 和目击者 so we can promptly notify the court of any likely problems.
  10. 我们会避免 片面的 communications with the court, including the judge's staff, on pending matters in person (whether in social, 专业, 或者其他情况), 通过电话, 和 in letters 和 other forms of written communication, 除非这种通信仅与日程安排或其他非实质性行政事项有关, or are made with the consent of all 方, or are otherwise expressly authorized by law or court rule.

Judges' Duties to Lawyers

  1. We will be courteous, respectful, 和 civil to lawyers, 方, 和目击者. We will maintain control of the proceedings, recognizing that 法官 have both the obligation 和 the authority to ensure that judicial proceedings are conducted with dignity, 礼仪, 和礼貌.
  2. 我们不会 employ hostile, 有损人格的, or humiliating words in opinions or in written or oral communications with lawyers, 方, 或目击者.
  3. We will be punctual in convening 听证会, 会议, 和会议; if delayed, we will notify counsel as promptly as possible.
  4. 在安排听证会时, 会议, 和会议, we will be considerate of time schedules of lawyers, 方, 和目击者 和 of other courts 和 tribunals. We will inform counsel promptly of any rescheduling, 推迟, or cancellation of 听证会, 会议, 或会议.
  5. While endeavoring to resolve disputes 非常高效。ly, 我们将考虑到时间的限制和澳门赌场官网的压力,由紧急诉讼业务. 我们将尽一切合理的努力迅速决定提交给我们决定的事项.
  6. 我们承认澳门赌场官网有权利和义务充分而恰当地陈述案件, 和 that a litigant has a right to a 公平 和 impartial hearing. Within the practical limits of time, we will allow lawyers to present proper arguments, to make a complete 和 accurate record, 和 to present a case free from unreasonable or unnecessary judicial interruption.
  7. 我们不会 impugn the 完整性 or 专业ism of any lawyer on the basis of the clients whom or the causes which a lawyer represents.
  8. We will do our best to ensure that 法院工作人员 act civilly toward lawyers, 方, 和目击者.
  9. At an appropriate time 和 in an appropriate manner, 我们将提请澳门赌场官网注意我们观察到的与这些标准不一致的行为.

Judges' Duties to Each Other

  1. We will treat other 法官 with courtesy 和 respect.
  2. In written opinions 和 oral remarks, we will refrain from personally attacking, 诋毁, or 有损人格的 other 法官.
  3. 我们将努力在提供澳门赌场官网方面与其他法官合作, 目击者, 方, 法庭资源.

D.C. 酒吧 Voluntary St和ards of Civility: Principles Applicable to Representations


  1. 我们不会 knowingly misrepresent or mischaracterize facts or authorities or affirmatively mislead another party or its counsel in 谈判.
  2. 我们不会在谈判中进行人身中伤或其他辱骂或无礼的行为. 我们不会在谈判桌上与对方澳门赌场官网或当事人进行激烈的交锋. 我们将鼓励我们的客户按照这些原则行事.
  3. 我们将尊重与其他澳门赌场官网达成的所有谅解和承诺. We will st和 by proposals we have made in 谈判 unless newly received information or unforeseen circumstances provide a good faith basis for rescinding them, 我们将鼓励我们的客户按照这一原则行事.
  4. 我们不会 make changes to written documents under negotiation in a manner calculated to cause the opposing party or counsel to overlook or fail to appreciate the changes. We will clearly 和 accurately identify for other counsel 和 方 all changes that we have made in documents submitted to us for review.
  5. In memorializing oral agreements the 方 have reached, we will do so without making changes in substance 和 will strive in good faith to state the oral underst和ings accurately 和 completely. In drafting proposed agreements based on letters of intent, 我们将努力起草公正反映各方协议的文件.